Why we need FOSS Factory
The free software movement doesn't need a bounty model. On the contrary, the movement has proven to be an incredibly powerful force, turning whole segments of the software industry on their heads, forcing countless major corporations to rethink their business models.
Even so, only a tiny fraction of its potential is being realized. Most large FOSS projects begin as a single programmer scratching his own personal itch. In reality, that programmer needs much more than just an itch. He also needs a plan, the skill in the relevant domain, good charisma and leadership abilities, and the drive and dedication to see the project through. Plus he needs to have the time to commit. It's a pretty rare mix in any single individual.
With FOSS Factory, a project can get its start from just an itch and a preliminary plan. As long as you're not the only person with that particular need, your project has a good chance of success.
The concept of free software bounties is not new. Two notable attempts, SourceXchange and Cosource.com, both launched in 1999. At the time, it generated some excitement. In May of that year, Doc Searls of the Linux Journal quoted Eric S. Raymond: "I love it. One company is just a bunch of crazy guys. But two companies is an industry."
A doomed industry, apparently. Both companies were defunct by 2001.
Today, there are a few interesting FOSS bounty sites around. Two of the best known are Gnome's Desktop Integration Bounty Hunt and the bounty system integrated into Launchpad. Neither of these sites is intended to be general-purpose, each catering to its own domain. Nat Friedman, maintainer of the Gnome bounties, specifically laments this point in the page introduction. He writes, "Some day I'd like there to be a general bounty system that anyone can use.", linking to an entry in his blog where he outlines the idea. The link is worth reading.
Both the Gnome and Launchpad sites' strength lies in their simplicity. Both seem to perform their intended functions well. But we clearly could use something more.
A much more interesting bounty site is The Public Software Fund, Inc. This site provides all the basic functionality for members to post projects, contribute funding and claim bounties. The posted bounties on their site are impressive, to say the least, with many of them in the range of tens of thousands of US dollars. Unfortunately, the site comes across more as a proof-of-concept demo than as a production system -- the interface is tedious and uninformative, and it produces absolutely no sense of community. More importantly, it's sure to suffer from serious project management problems as will be explained in the next section. In fact, there is evidence to that effect. For example, the CurrencyWatermarks bounty has $20,000 of funding, and a $20,000 bid. The site gives no indication of the project status, but the proposal estimates a completion date of November 2004. It's impossible to tell whether the work was ever done, or whether the bounty was ever paid.
Why do FOSS bounty sites fail?
There are several major hurdles in designing a general-purpose FOSS bounty site.
1. The thought of sharing the bounty is a disincentive to collaboration.
In June of 1999, Bernie Thompson of Cosource.com wrote:
"This was one of the first issues we wanted to tackle with Cosource.com. How can we make a bounty system work, yet not have developers motivated to keep secrets from each other as they all race to win the bounty?"Their "solution" was a bidding process, granting an exclusive on the bounty. This approach avoids the incentive for secrecy, but it completely fails to encourage collaboration. At the same time, it creates even bigger problems. (see below) It's interesting to note that for very small tasks, this issue disappears because there's no reason to split up the work. In fact, the Gnome site's success is owed largely to the fact that its tasks are all very small and well-defined – perfect for a one-man team.
FOSS Factory exploits this principle by tying bounty subdivision to the collaborative design process. Here's how it works. Any community member can help break down a large project into smaller components, offering an initial design for each component. Forums are provided for discussing and proposing design revisions. The most promising components are assigned a portion of the bounty.
This approach creates a disconnect between the choice of whether to collaborate and the choice of whether to share the bounty. The result is an environment where collaboration is rewarded with early partial payment, and failure to collaborate carries a risk of getting left behind.
2. Exclusive project assignment, though seemingly necessary, is a project management nightmare.
Fairness seems to dictate that if a person or team commits to a project, then that project should be exclusively theirs at least for a period of time.
Exclusivity is the direct opposite of openness, and it incites a hornet's nest of project management problems. As often as not, programmers get bored or distracted. We all have a tendency to overestimate our own abilities, and to underestimate project complexity. Projects are often overdesigned, leading to an endless series of sidetracks, or underdesigned, leading to an endless series of rewrites. For these, and many more reasons, exclusively-assigned projects are frequently stalled or abandoned, leaving the project no further ahead after weeks, months or years of delay.
FOSS Factory never grants exclusivity. Instead, it provides facilities to make project contention avoidable, and trusts its users to cooperate. In the absence of exclusivity, developers retain the freedom to work on their own schedule, and on their own terms. It eliminates the complexity of a bidding process, and it reduces all of the project management issues down to a single decision: Does the submission meet the spec?
3. Because the final product will be freely available, it's especially hard to motivate sponsors.
Separating people from their money is always the hardest part of any venture. Past successes in the FOSS bounty arena have focussed on corporate sponsors, and therefore involved a lot of leg work on the part of the organizers. Notably, the Gnome site benefits from one incredibly generous sponsor, namely Novell.
In all probability, corporate sponsors will play a dominant role in FOSS Factory's funding. However, its success will ultimately be measured by its self-sufficiency. The hope is that the community will become adequately attractive to sponsors so as to no longer need manual sales strategies. To this end, FOSS Factory incorporates several motivational tactics to encourage both single and recurring sponsorships. For example:
- Sponsors are granted exceptionally broad flexibility in handling their funds.
- Project credits (derived from sponsorships) may be used to vote for featured projects, or to help elect a favourite project lead.
- Monthly sponsorships are rewarded by increasing the value of project credits.
Time will tell whether the existing incentives will accomplish the site's long-term funding goals. In the meantime, the success of other sites proves that traditional techniques will suffice.
4. The latitude that developers need for inspiration conflicts with the control that sponsors want in return for their funding.
This issue is familiar to anyone who has been involved in any software consulting project. Unless the project is unambiguously specified down to every minute detail (a nearly impossible task), there will always be disagreements. In the worst case, it can destroy the project, resulting in refusal to pay and/or refusal to deliver.
Again, this problem is not unique to FOSS bounty sites. In fact, it seems conspicuously absent in the vast majority of unfunded free software projects.
FOSS Factory's solution rests on four pillars:
- Encourage brief project proposals with wide creative leeway, but specific goals.
- Involve the entire community in the design process.
- Limit the project lead's authority.
- Preserve all parties' freedom to walk away.
The fourth pillar depends on an interesting irony. When parties are not forced to cooperate, they feel more free to cooperate. The freedom to participate in any way, at any time, without any formal commitment is a cornerstone of the free software movement, and is pivotal in FOSS Factory's design.
Completeness and Usability
Despite all the benefits mentioned above, if FOSS Factory's website were too hard to use, nobody would use it. Fortunately, its usability and level of completeness truly set it apart from other current bounty sites.
FOSS Factory was designed to accommodate a large, vibrant community working together toward many shared goals. The site includes facilities for bounty management, collaborative project design, general discussion, jury-based dispute resolution, selection of featured projects, project alerts and announcements, and much more. Every aspect of project workflow, including funding and bounty payouts is fully controlled by the community. The shallow navigation model ensures that the site doesn't get in your way, but rather puts the tools you need at your fingertips.
FOSS Factory is exactly what is needed to take free software development to the next level. It's been a long time in coming, but we finally have a general bounty system that can fund large FOSS projects. The applications are endless. Let's put it to use.
Last Modified: February 26, 2011